Two icons of the 1960s used the term “by any means necessary”: the French existentialist p...

Silence Malcolm X “By Any Means Necesary”

Two icons of the 1960s used the term “by any means necessary”: the French existentialist philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre and Black Muslim activist Malcolm X.  Sartre first used the term in his 1963 play “Dirty Hands,” and Malcolm X used it during the…

 

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